What My Cosmetic Dentist Taught Me About Freelance Marketing

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What My Cosmetic Dentist Taught Me About Freelance Marketing

A few years ago, I fell on my face and cracked a tooth. A front tooth. I was living temporarily in a city far away from my beloved dentist of 20 years. Of the friends I asked for referrals, none had recommendations for a cosmetic specialist — and a few had warnings. The two dental offices in my neighborhood did not offer emergency appointments and neither was a specialty practice. Leery though I was, I called 1-800-DENTIST to find a specialist or a general practitioner who could book an immediate appointment and give me a referral. I checked out the Yelp reviews for each of the dentists whose names I was given, and called the highest rated one. I explained that I’d broken a tooth, and the receptionist said there were appointments open the following day. He asked a few intake questions, and I revealed it was a front tooth. “Oh!” the receptionist, “Don’t come here. Go to my former boss. He’s the best for something like that!” Back on Yelp, I found the following review of dentist number two: “When I broke my tooth, I called a few general practice dentists and asked, ‘If George Clooney was in town and needed a cosmetic guy, who would you send him to?’ “Every one gave me this guy’s name. He was expensive, but he did not disappoint.” I booked the appointment. Indeed he was expensive, but he did not disappoint! His staff gave empathetic customer service. The technician, as she set me up in the chair on every visit, said, “I am very sorry you have to have this experience.” The dentist had a true artisanal passion for his work. He commented on miniscule imperfections in the way my bite had developed, and offered to correct them for better aesthetics. He had a lab in his home where he “played” with crafting perfect veneers, and he’d worked with the same fabrication lab for twenty years. The results? Friends who did not know I’d broken a tooth told me my face looked thinner! While I’d rather still have my imperfect, intact teeth, and the money I spent on the procedures, I am thankful for the dental outcome — and the business lessons.
  • Treat people well! The receptionist who referred me to his employer’s competitor was loyal to his former employer and brazenly disloyal to his current employer. Either he liked his ex-employer personally, or he truly believed that doctor gave better service, or both. A paycheck won’t buy loyalty, and it’s a copout to label it a matter of character.
  • Think twice about paying money for a directory listing, and focus on quality service. My dentist evidently has a strong enough brand that he did not need a listing — even his rival’s listing led to him.
  • When you ask for a referral, ask for something specific and compelling. The “George Clooney” line was good, worthy of a professional copywriter.
Have you learned any marketing lessons from an unexpected source?
Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

Hourly or Project: That’s Not the Question

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Hourly or Project: That’s Not the Question

A Google search for “hourly vs project writer” yields 475,000 results. Each method has its fans. The debate has been covered exhaustively. Many experienced writers end up at, “It depends on the project,” and cite their typical arrangement and its common exceptions. Everyone agrees: If you charge by the project, you must have a sense of the underlying hourly rate. You don’t want to work for minimum wage. If you charge by the hour, you must have a way to determine if the total fee for any given project will be worth your time. One hundred dollars an hour may be a great rate, but, realistically, you cannot sell, deliver, and administer dozens of separate hundred-dollar writing projects per month. One popular tool is the “hourly rate calculator.” You can find many examples on line. My complaint about those calculators is that they perpetuate the faulty frame that leads writers to charge too little and ultimately harms the quality of their body of work. The typical calculator offers a formula something like this: Start with the amount of money you make on your job, say $25 per hour. Assume that you will bill some portion of that time and spend the rest of your time on marketing, bookkeeping, etc. Add in your business and personal expenses, from health insurance to internet connection to tax preparation. Subtract hours you plan to use for vacation, sick leave, and continuing education. There is a big problem with this method and the mindset that spawned it: The hourly rate you charge must be a price, not a wage. Freelancers who come from salaried jobs often confuse the business revenue with the owner’s personal income. In essence, you-the-business and you-the-owner are separate; the money you pay yourself for working is a business expense. Think of it like so:
  • Overhead expenses: Internet, phone, paper, postage, software, home office, business license
  • Direct expenses: travel to a client site, rent to host a client focus group
  • Labor expenses (may be direct or indirect): proofreader, virtual assistant, IT consultant, YOU
Profit is the difference between the money you collect (revenue) and the cost to deliver. Your personal income is equivalent to your pay for labor plus your profit. To earn what you want, you do not need to convince clients “what you are worth.” You also don’t need to bolster your self-esteem and convince yourself of “what you deserve”! The task before you is to define service offerings for which:
  • the price the market will bear exceeds the cost to deliver
  • you have (or can develop) the capacity to deliver — both time and skill
  • you have (or can attract) a large enough customer base willing and able to pay your prices
  • the total work you bill adds up to the revenue you need
Get the offerings right, and the right pricing method won’t be so hard; ideally, your price will reflect both good compensation for you and good value for your clients. Your prices, profits, and personal income can increase with the value you can demonstrate. This is not a pricing problem. It’s a business modeling and positioning problem. Writers new to self-employment, nervous about approaching big clients or selling more than “writing skills,” commonly rely on one particular type of high-maintenance client. (I know I used to!) You may  feel comfortable with these clients because they treat you the way you are used to being treated by a relaxed sort of boss. Often they are entrepreneurs who are unaccustomed to collaborating with vendors. These clients might be better served by a part-time employee or virtual assistant than by a freelance writer. They really want a dedicated person standing ready to take small assignments for them, but they are nervous about committing to meeting a payroll. In some cases, the prospective client just can’t afford what they want in the form they are convinced they need. In other cases, you will find the person is too disorganized to delegate efficiently to employees or vendors. Some clients might benefit from purchasing canned content but believe that only custom work can meet their quality standards. (You might eventually create additional revenue streams around those services or cultivate a network of providers to whom you can refer. Just don’t let these clients weigh down your freelance writing practice! Serve a lot of these clients and you train yourself to crank out high-volume, low-quality work.) Conclusion: Set aside the hourly vs project question. Stop thinking like an employee for hire who negotiates based on “level.” Figure out what business purpose you can serve by the kind(s) of writing you do. Design service offerings that fit the purpose. Calculate what it will cost to deliver each service, including labor costs. Test, research, and evaluate the market. Target clients who can afford you. Then, price accordingly.
Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

The Right Writer for the Job

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The Right Writer for the Job

Ihear from writers all the time: “My title is ‘writer’ but it’s not really a writing job.” I’ve said it myself. I’ve also heard people who hire writers complain that the writers they hire want to phone it in, or think they’re too good for the client’s project. Any one of those perceptions is a red flag that the writer and project have been mismatched. The mismatch can be in project definition, hiring, or a failure of self-awareness on the part of the writer. Sometimes it’s all three.

Three distinct tasks are tangled up in writing work.

Mechanics are the foundation. Writers or not, we all learn mechanics — or should — in school. Mechanics includes grammar, syntax, spelling, and punctuation. It includes what a paragraph is. Since we can’t learn mechanics in isolation, we’re taught to apply the lessons to basic forms. In elementary school, we write “what I did for my summer vacation.” In middle school we prepare a book report on Johnny Tremain. In high school, we crank out five-paragraph essays on topics like “the use of Christ symbolism in Magic Mountain.” In college, we write ten-page research papers according to the standards of our major field.

Most professionals add a few more of these forms to their repertoire, for example, the grant proposal, the business memo, and the cover letter.

If your company needs a high volume of formulaic writing, offering your employees a course in basic writing skills may be a better investment than hiring professional writers.

Craft skill entails mastering text structures, forms, at an abstract level. To realize an idea as a novel, a documentary film, or a newspaper article — or as a white paper, business book, or a television commercial — the writer must apply the conventions that make the final product recognizable for what it is to the intended readers. There’s room for innovation and experimentation, but at some point the form breaks. Some craft requirements are technical and practical. There is no such thing as a 2-hour television commercial or a 1,000-word tagline. Other requirements are not so tangible. For example, sales pages use emotional language, while technical manuals typically do not. Skilled crafters concentrate on mastering the forms required for various jobs.

On these kinds of projects, hired writers offer excellent value. An executive can hire a business book ghostwriter. A content marketing manager can hire a white paper writer. The company can hire a creative team to produce blogs, product descriptions, and sales pages.

Meaning is not really a skill; it is having something to say. People with something to say either master the mechanics and the relevant craft forms, or they hire other people who have done so to write for them. The meaning may be philosophical, artistic, instructional, or informational. Jerry Garcia once said, “There are guys working in instrument shops who are much better musicians than I am; they just don’t have anything to say.”

Jerry had something to say and spent a lifetime developing the chops to say it. The rub: Artists such as he was can’t easily turn it off. When Jerry Garcia plays on someone else’s record, you know he’s there. Writers like this perform best when given creative license. They can do commercial work; only this kind of writer will make a top-notch ad person, for example. They will happily lend their craft skills to well-scoped projects. There is likely to be a clash, however, if you engage this kind of writer to clean up other people’s grammar or sloppy thinking.

If you have something to say but lack the skills to say it, decide whether you are – or can become – an adequate writer for the text. If you cannot, delegate to a writer. If you can, hire a teacher, a coach, or an editor instead. Also, consider whether you do have anything to say. Maybe you need to purchase content rather than create it.

Trouble arises when people confuse these facets of writing. The client blames the “arrogant” writer; the writer blames the “cheap” or “disrespectful” client. One of my clients handed me a case study to rewrite. The subject was how a company was capturing waste methane gas and using it to generate electricity. The piece read like a mystery novel. The previous writer, I suspect, was not a prima donna who refused to suppress his creativity to serve the client; most likely, this writer lacked craft expertise in case-study writing.

A common source of frustration among writers is being asked to “polish” work created by managers or subject matter experts. The assignment, to improve the mechanics of the writing, doesn’t match what’s really needed: the author of the piece has not applied the proper structure to the work or, worse, has completely failed to articulate the meaning he or she wants to convey.

The most dreadful moments in any commercial writer’s career come when an “editing” assignment arrives and it is impossible figure out what the person is trying to say. In these cases, the authors need either a ghostwriter to draw out the ideas and write in the author’s voice, a delegated writer who owns the project but publishes under the author’s byline, or writing instruction.

Writers: Know your strengths as well as your interests, and get clear on what you will be expected to do. Are you a synthesizer of information, a formulator or ideas, or an organizer of data? Do you excel at interviewing people to gain your own understanding, like a journalist or scholar? Are you more adept at helping people articulate their thoughts, like a coach? Or do you have the skill to do both, like a psychotherapist who diagnoses, intervenes, and guides? Are you a perfectionist? Will it drive you crazy to “edit” material that doesn’t meet your standards for logic?

If you need a writer: Use the right selection criteria. For your Web project, a Web content writer who has not worked in your industry may be a better choice than someone in your industry who has never written Web content. A senior-level author may, paradoxically, have a harder time than a less experienced one churning out a quick article with no context. If you need someone to create “the voice” of your company, hire someone with samples that demonstrate an original style or point of view.

Whether you are taking on a writing project or hiring someone to join one, ask, “Does this project need a language mechanic, a text crafter, or an author?”

Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

Freelance Writers: What’s On Your Plate?

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Freelance Writers: What’s On Your Plate?

Athought experiment: You have worked for ten years as a bartender in a restaurant. You’ve saved up some money and you decide to open your own restaurant. Instead of opening a cheap burger joint, a gourmet pizza parlor, or a sushi bar, you open a place called FOOD. FOOD serves whatever a customer wants. On a given Friday night, your first table is a couple on a romantic date. One partner wants Kobe steak, baked potato, and green beans; the other, an organic pork chop with rice and Brussels sprouts. They want to eat by candlelight. The next two tables both want pizza. There is a high school softball team expecting an 18” pepperoni pie for $8.99 with free soft drinks. They play Miley Cyrus on the digital jukebox you installed. Loud. There is group of high-level managers from a local corporation, celebrating the successful completion of an initiative. They order Chicago deep dish with sun dried tomatoes and caviar, and specialty cocktails, which they can expense for $300. You keep the kitchen stocked with a variety of ingredients and retain enough staff to run out for anything you might need for a customer order. Your equipment and tools range from sushi knives to a wood-fired oven. You hire both a sommelier and a clown. You carry extra insurance coverage for those customers who want to come into the kitchen and cook themselves. You advertise in the local college rag, the opera program, and Parenting magazine, and engage a service that will stick your fliers on telephone poles all over town. You recruit everywhere, too, from top culinary academies in New York to the public high school. Sound like a winner? Several years ago, I realized that my freelance writing business was just such a hot mess. Some clients would sporadically send me two or three hours of work on short notice for an hourly fee. Some clients would have me collaborate with four or five team members who did not agree on what was to be said. Still others assigned fifty pages of boilerplate copy to repurpose. I had a bunch of projects of different scopes, sometimes acting as a glorified secretary or an underpaid project manager rather than as a professional writer. I negotiated pricing and other terms individually with each client. Like so many freelancers, I could never predict what my workload would be the following month or how much income I would have. Some of my clients treated me like an expert consultant while others seemed to think they were my boss. The lesson: As it is with a restaurant, so it is with a freelance writing business. You, the owner have to decide what your business identity is. While you are a bartender, you can work at two different restaurants, slicking back the hair and covering tattoos with sleeves on Monday night, and sporting a Mohawk and a surly attitude at the place down the street on Tuesday. In your career as a corporate employee, you might fulfill a variety of roles at different companies under the title “Writer.” If you want a sustainable independent business, you must pull together a model that lets you work efficiently, price effectively, and market consistently. Your particular strengths and interests should guide that decision, so you can avoid burnout. One writer I know recently told me she sometimes generates 10,000 words a day for client projects. (That would exhaust me.) Another described a ghostwriting project for a person who wants her memoir written from her pet cat’s point of view. (Um. No.) Me? I spent the past two weeks interviewing executives; researching industry analysis; reviewing company slide presentations, technical documents, videos, and press releases — all to produce about 2,000 words of integrated strategic content in the form of a newsletter, an email message, and a proposal. Research, conceptual work, analysis. Multiple layers of communication. Density over volume. That’s my kind of dish. What’s yours? Your business is not a job. You decide what’s on the menu.
Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.