Hourly or Project: That’s Not the Question

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Hourly or Project: That’s Not the Question

A Google search for “hourly vs project writer” yields 475,000 results. Each method has its fans. The debate has been covered exhaustively. Many experienced writers end up at, “It depends on the project,” and cite their typical arrangement and its common exceptions. Everyone agrees: If you charge by the project, you must have a sense of the underlying hourly rate. You don’t want to work for minimum wage. If you charge by the hour, you must have a way to determine if the total fee for any given project will be worth your time. One hundred dollars an hour may be a great rate, but, realistically, you cannot sell, deliver, and administer dozens of separate hundred-dollar writing projects per month. One popular tool is the “hourly rate calculator.” You can find many examples on line. My complaint about those calculators is that they perpetuate the faulty frame that leads writers to charge too little and ultimately harms the quality of their body of work. The typical calculator offers a formula something like this: Start with the amount of money you make on your job, say $25 per hour. Assume that you will bill some portion of that time and spend the rest of your time on marketing, bookkeeping, etc. Add in your business and personal expenses, from health insurance to internet connection to tax preparation. Subtract hours you plan to use for vacation, sick leave, and continuing education. There is a big problem with this method and the mindset that spawned it: The hourly rate you charge must be a price, not a wage. Freelancers who come from salaried jobs often confuse the business revenue with the owner’s personal income. In essence, you-the-business and you-the-owner are separate; the money you pay yourself for working is a business expense. Think of it like so:
  • Overhead expenses: Internet, phone, paper, postage, software, home office, business license
  • Direct expenses: travel to a client site, rent to host a client focus group
  • Labor expenses (may be direct or indirect): proofreader, virtual assistant, IT consultant, YOU
Profit is the difference between the money you collect (revenue) and the cost to deliver. Your personal income is equivalent to your pay for labor plus your profit. To earn what you want, you do not need to convince clients “what you are worth.” You also don’t need to bolster your self-esteem and convince yourself of “what you deserve”! The task before you is to define service offerings for which:
  • the price the market will bear exceeds the cost to deliver
  • you have (or can develop) the capacity to deliver — both time and skill
  • you have (or can attract) a large enough customer base willing and able to pay your prices
  • the total work you bill adds up to the revenue you need
Get the offerings right, and the right pricing method won’t be so hard; ideally, your price will reflect both good compensation for you and good value for your clients. Your prices, profits, and personal income can increase with the value you can demonstrate. This is not a pricing problem. It’s a business modeling and positioning problem. Writers new to self-employment, nervous about approaching big clients or selling more than “writing skills,” commonly rely on one particular type of high-maintenance client. (I know I used to!) You may  feel comfortable with these clients because they treat you the way you are used to being treated by a relaxed sort of boss. Often they are entrepreneurs who are unaccustomed to collaborating with vendors. These clients might be better served by a part-time employee or virtual assistant than by a freelance writer. They really want a dedicated person standing ready to take small assignments for them, but they are nervous about committing to meeting a payroll. In some cases, the prospective client just can’t afford what they want in the form they are convinced they need. In other cases, you will find the person is too disorganized to delegate efficiently to employees or vendors. Some clients might benefit from purchasing canned content but believe that only custom work can meet their quality standards. (You might eventually create additional revenue streams around those services or cultivate a network of providers to whom you can refer. Just don’t let these clients weigh down your freelance writing practice! Serve a lot of these clients and you train yourself to crank out high-volume, low-quality work.) Conclusion: Set aside the hourly vs project question. Stop thinking like an employee for hire who negotiates based on “level.” Figure out what business purpose you can serve by the kind(s) of writing you do. Design service offerings that fit the purpose. Calculate what it will cost to deliver each service, including labor costs. Test, research, and evaluate the market. Target clients who can afford you. Then, price accordingly.
Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

The Right Writer for the Job

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The Right Writer for the Job

Ihear from writers all the time: “My title is ‘writer’ but it’s not really a writing job.” I’ve said it myself. I’ve also heard people who hire writers complain that the writers they hire want to phone it in, or think they’re too good for the client’s project. Any one of those perceptions is a red flag that the writer and project have been mismatched. The mismatch can be in project definition, hiring, or a failure of self-awareness on the part of the writer. Sometimes it’s all three.

Three distinct tasks are tangled up in writing work.

Mechanics are the foundation. Writers or not, we all learn mechanics — or should — in school. Mechanics includes grammar, syntax, spelling, and punctuation. It includes what a paragraph is. Since we can’t learn mechanics in isolation, we’re taught to apply the lessons to basic forms. In elementary school, we write “what I did for my summer vacation.” In middle school we prepare a book report on Johnny Tremain. In high school, we crank out five-paragraph essays on topics like “the use of Christ symbolism in Magic Mountain.” In college, we write ten-page research papers according to the standards of our major field.

Most professionals add a few more of these forms to their repertoire, for example, the grant proposal, the business memo, and the cover letter.

If your company needs a high volume of formulaic writing, offering your employees a course in basic writing skills may be a better investment than hiring professional writers.

Craft skill entails mastering text structures, forms, at an abstract level. To realize an idea as a novel, a documentary film, or a newspaper article — or as a white paper, business book, or a television commercial — the writer must apply the conventions that make the final product recognizable for what it is to the intended readers. There’s room for innovation and experimentation, but at some point the form breaks. Some craft requirements are technical and practical. There is no such thing as a 2-hour television commercial or a 1,000-word tagline. Other requirements are not so tangible. For example, sales pages use emotional language, while technical manuals typically do not. Skilled crafters concentrate on mastering the forms required for various jobs.

On these kinds of projects, hired writers offer excellent value. An executive can hire a business book ghostwriter. A content marketing manager can hire a white paper writer. The company can hire a creative team to produce blogs, product descriptions, and sales pages.

Meaning is not really a skill; it is having something to say. People with something to say either master the mechanics and the relevant craft forms, or they hire other people who have done so to write for them. The meaning may be philosophical, artistic, instructional, or informational. Jerry Garcia once said, “There are guys working in instrument shops who are much better musicians than I am; they just don’t have anything to say.”

Jerry had something to say and spent a lifetime developing the chops to say it. The rub: Artists such as he was can’t easily turn it off. When Jerry Garcia plays on someone else’s record, you know he’s there. Writers like this perform best when given creative license. They can do commercial work; only this kind of writer will make a top-notch ad person, for example. They will happily lend their craft skills to well-scoped projects. There is likely to be a clash, however, if you engage this kind of writer to clean up other people’s grammar or sloppy thinking.

If you have something to say but lack the skills to say it, decide whether you are – or can become – an adequate writer for the text. If you cannot, delegate to a writer. If you can, hire a teacher, a coach, or an editor instead. Also, consider whether you do have anything to say. Maybe you need to purchase content rather than create it.

Trouble arises when people confuse these facets of writing. The client blames the “arrogant” writer; the writer blames the “cheap” or “disrespectful” client. One of my clients handed me a case study to rewrite. The subject was how a company was capturing waste methane gas and using it to generate electricity. The piece read like a mystery novel. The previous writer, I suspect, was not a prima donna who refused to suppress his creativity to serve the client; most likely, this writer lacked craft expertise in case-study writing.

A common source of frustration among writers is being asked to “polish” work created by managers or subject matter experts. The assignment, to improve the mechanics of the writing, doesn’t match what’s really needed: the author of the piece has not applied the proper structure to the work or, worse, has completely failed to articulate the meaning he or she wants to convey.

The most dreadful moments in any commercial writer’s career come when an “editing” assignment arrives and it is impossible figure out what the person is trying to say. In these cases, the authors need either a ghostwriter to draw out the ideas and write in the author’s voice, a delegated writer who owns the project but publishes under the author’s byline, or writing instruction.

Writers: Know your strengths as well as your interests, and get clear on what you will be expected to do. Are you a synthesizer of information, a formulator or ideas, or an organizer of data? Do you excel at interviewing people to gain your own understanding, like a journalist or scholar? Are you more adept at helping people articulate their thoughts, like a coach? Or do you have the skill to do both, like a psychotherapist who diagnoses, intervenes, and guides? Are you a perfectionist? Will it drive you crazy to “edit” material that doesn’t meet your standards for logic?

If you need a writer: Use the right selection criteria. For your Web project, a Web content writer who has not worked in your industry may be a better choice than someone in your industry who has never written Web content. A senior-level author may, paradoxically, have a harder time than a less experienced one churning out a quick article with no context. If you need someone to create “the voice” of your company, hire someone with samples that demonstrate an original style or point of view.

Whether you are taking on a writing project or hiring someone to join one, ask, “Does this project need a language mechanic, a text crafter, or an author?”

Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

The Best Time to Start Is Now

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The Best Time to Start Is Now

A year ago, my neighbor overheard me talking about reading poetry at an open mic.

“I write poetry,” he said. “I should go read sometime. I don’t have a working computer. I need to type up the poems.”

“You don’t need to type them up to read,” I said.

I told him about a few readings in town where he could share his stuff — at a couple of bars, a library, an art gallery, a senior-citizen apartment building.

“I’ve never done it before. I’m a little nervous about it.”

“Don’t worry about it,” I said. “All levels of talent there!”

This evening, we crossed paths on the stairs.

“I read at the library today. It wasn’t so bad. It’s the fourth Thursday of every month.”

He’s 70 years old.

I’ll have to check it out.

Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

Tira McDonald

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Tira McDonald

Barbara has worked on a couple of projects for me that were initially started with another writer. Barbara asked pertinent questions and made sure she understood the objectives of each project before she took on the assignments. The final products were vast improvements over the originals. Barbara makes herself available throughout the project and usually turns around a draft ahead of schedule. I have recommended Barbara to other colleagues and will continue to do so. If anyone is in need of an excellent copywriter with great time management skills, I highly suggest giving Barbara a call. You will not be disappointed.
Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

The Times Are A-Changin’

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The Times Are A-Changin’

A few weeks ago, a Facebook friend cast for sources for an article about interviewing for a job. I answered the call. I worked as a recruiter for a few years, and interviewing was one of my favorite parts of the job. She sent me a set of questions by email, I answered them, and voila, a few weeks later, the article appeared online in the jobs section of the The Telegraph (UK). The backstory is the fun part. The writer was my fourth-grade classmate; we reconnected on Facebook just a couple of years ago. The one unit I remember in detail from fourth grade was one about how The New York Times uses the front page layout to communicate the importance of each story, and how to fold the paper for comfortable and courteous reading during a crowded morning commute. Read Soozy G. Miller’s article featuring yours truly, or check out her book, ADHD to Honor Roll: How I Cured My Child’s ADHD Without Drugs (And You Can, Too!).  
Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

AdvisorTeam.com Case Study

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AdvisorTeam.com Case Study

When I was hired, AdvisorTeam (subsequently absorbed into Keirsey.com) had just begun to turn a profit from its online version of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, a personality profiling instrument similar to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. These personality tests are popular with job seekers, career counselors, and professionals, so the company decided to develop a career-focused report to capitalize further on David Keirsey’s intellectual property.

Working with a designer, I developed the modular structure and wrote the copy for the 16 versions of the Career Temperament Report, which has been sold online continuously for more than 15 years. Keirsey.com company has since produced several new reports using the template I devised.

Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

C.J. Hayden

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C.J. Hayden

Weeks after Barbara’s talk, my students continued to report how helpful they found the concepts she had taught them. These women managers worked in some high-stress environments — the U.S. Postal Service, BART, and AC Transit, to name a few. It was very gratifying to hear them tell how they had learned to recognize and turn around negative behavior. One student said, “I never realized what a problem the hoarding of information is in my office. Now that I know I can help people be more positive just by keeping them informed, we’re getting a lot more done.” I wouldn’t hesitate to recommend Barbara as a trainer or consultant in any business, government or nonprofit environment. – C.J. Hayden, Author, Business Coach
Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

Sierra Club Case Study

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Sierra Club Case Study

Almost every American has heard of the Sierra Club, the environmental organization founded by John Muir. The Sierra Club leads hikes for nature lovers, operates educational programs for schools and communities, and advocates for conservation. The Sierra Club is a 501(c)4 nonprofit that engages in political advocacy and therefore is not tax-exempt.  It has 65 chapters and 400+ groups. The Sierra Club Foundation is a 501(c)3, a tax-exempt public charity and the fiscal sponsor of the charitable programs of the Sierra Club and other organizations. The Sierra Club’s communications challenge is to explain its vast portfolio of activities to audiences with fundamentally different motivations — activists, idealists, and citizens who simply want to engage with the people and places around them. This requires that they produce multiple versions of collateral in different voices. My most recent project for the Sierra Club was a set of fact sheets that will be used as leave-behinds in fundraising conversations. Development officers will use them to inspire high-net-worth donors to contribute to potentially game-changing projects.
Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

Writing is a Process Not a Procedure

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Writing is a Process Not a Procedure

Here’s how I learned to compose a piece in high school:
  1. Write an outline
  2. Write a rough draft, beginning to end
  3. Write one or more additional complete drafts
  4. Edit
Here’s how I actually write a piece:
  1. Write down some notes about the topic
  2. Start a draft
  3. Think about what I’m writing as I go about my day doing other things
  4. Write more notes
  5. Rearrange the ideas using an outline to figure out the structure
  6. Realize what it is I’m actually trying to say
  7. Rewrite
  8. Write a complete draft
  9. Revise
  10. Edit
Drafts, outlines, and mind maps aren’t clean steps. They’re techniques for organizing and sustaining the thinking process that ends up on the page.
Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.

2nd Chance for Pets Case Study

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2nd Chance for Pets Case Study

2nd Chance for Pets has a multi-layered message to communicate. There are millions of homeless pets whose lives are in danger; 2nd Chance focuses on the plight of those who lose their homes because the owner has died. I wrote a short tagline that the nonprofit used on the home page, “If you find it hard to think about life without your pet, imagine your pet’s life without you.” The founder ran with it. She used the concept as the emotional “hook” for a short educational slideshow that makes pet owners aware of the issue, and urges them to learn more about how the organization helps owners make lifetime care programs for their pets.
Barbara Ruth Saunders is a writer, editor, and writing coach.